• April 14, 2024

How to master backend development

How to become a backend developer, what to study in 2022 and in what order? We have compiled a roadmap that will help you figure this out.:

Roadmap for backend development in 2021

Area of responsibility
Operating systems and the basis
Choosing a programming language

API Databases
Web servers
Area of responsibility
The backend developer is responsible for the correct operation and optimization of the server logic. Roughly speaking, authentication, distribution of access rights, processing user actions, working with data, integration with other applications, query processing speed — all this falls on the shoulders of the server. Of course, the frontend also does not stand still, and a number of functions can be transferred to the client’s side. But in this case, you should be aware of how secure it is for the web application and its users, and also whether it will slow down the site.

Next, we will talk about the key points. A more complete picture is presented in the form of a roadmap for backend development.

How to become a developer from scratch

Operating systems and the basis
It is very important to learn how to work with the terminal, especially when it comes to Linux.

The backend developer must know how the OS works, what threads and parallelism are, understand the concepts of network construction and POSIX standards, and also be able to manage processes, memory, input and output (I/O).

Useful materials:

Working in the Linux terminal like a pro: a selection of useful commands
List of basic console commands for Windows Admin
What is POSIX?
A selection of books on computer networks
And also a video about what the operating system is and how it works:

Choosing a programming language
There are many disputes in which adherents of a programming language prove its superiority over others in backend development. But do not forget that the language is only a tool, and which one to choose depends on the goal and the knowledge already available.

For example, if you already know JavaScript and have decided to master the backend after the frontend, Node will be a good choice.js: and it will be easier to maintain, and you can play full stack. Do you know Python? Well, Django also provides a lot of ready-made solutions for the backend. Java is worth taking on if you have a complex long-running project in front of you, and if a web application is small, writing a backend for it in Java is like hammering nails with a ball. PHP is still a constant classic, because the vast majority of modern websites are really developed in this language.

And that’s not all. You can read more in our article about the 8 main languages for the backend.

Databases will become your main resource, and DBMS will become your new home. You should understand the difference between relational and NoSQL DBMS, master normalization, transactions, ORM, ACID, the N+1 problem and the CAP theorem.

Materials on working with databases:

SQL and NoSQL: we understand the basic database models
How to design a database so that you don’t have to rewrite it in the future
27 common SQL interview questions and answers
There is also a good video that clearly explains normalization in the database:

You will have to get acquainted with the API as a means of integrating applications in order to connect third-party services, import data, use ready-made solutions for your web resource. Often, services that provide access to their API describe the connection process in the documentation. Sometimes it is as accessible as possible, and sometimes you have to figure out some things yourself, so it is important not just to know, but also to understand how the API works.

Check out our recommendations on using the API of popular web services and not only.

Web servers
It is worth learning how to install and configure popular web servers such as Nginx, Apache, Caddy and MS IIS. All of them are quite safe and easy to use.

And you can also read about how to configure the server for the site yourself using DigitalOcean hosting and the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS operating system.

So how do I become a backend developer in 2022? It is necessary to understand the principles of operating systems, the basic terminal commands, choose the preferred programming language, master working with databases, APIs and learn how to work with web servers. And to be aware of the current problems of the web,